FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH°


FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH°
FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH° (1773–1843), German antisemitic philosopher. He lectured in Jena and Heidelberg and published authoritative works on philosophy and psychology. On the one hand, Fries was an advocate of enlightenment, civil and constitutional rights and the equality of man. On the other hand he propagated a cultural, religious, and voelkisch conception of a homogeneous German nation excluding Jews as an ethnic and religious minority. In his pamphlet Ueber die Gefaehrdung des Wohlstandes und Charakters der Deutschen durch die Juden (Heidelberg, 1816), Fries accused the Jews of "physical separation" from the German people and demanded an enforced integration by the complete adoption of German culture and values and the destruction of Judaism and Jewish traditions: "We do not declare war on the Jews, our brothers, but on Jewry" (Judenschaft). Immediately after the Napoleonic wars, Fries took part in the nationalistic student agitation and was the only member of the professional staff present at the 1817 Wartburg demonstration. His popularity with the   students contributed to the success of his anti-Jewish writings. Under his influence, the Burschenschaft (students' associations) decided not to accept Jews as members. Although Fries' antisemitic attitude was not principally racist, his rabid language and the frequent use of the words "destruction" and "annihilation" in particular paved the way for radical forms of racial antisemitism. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Katz, From Prejudice to Destruction. Anti-Semitism 1700–1933 (1980); G. Hubmann, "Voelkischer Nationalismus und Antisemitismus im fruehen 19. Jahrhundert. Die Schriften von Ruehs und Fries zur Judenfrage," in: R. Heuer and R.-R. Wuthenow (eds.), Antisemitismus, Zionismus, Antizionismus 1850–1940 (1997), 10–34; G. Hubmann, "Menschenwürde und Antijudaismus. Zur politischen Philosophie von J.F. Fries," in: W. Hogrebe (ed.), J.F. Fries, Philosoph, Naturwissenschaftler und Mathematiker (1999), 141–63 (Leon Poliakov)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Fries, Jakob Friedrich — ▪ German philosopher born Aug. 23, 1773, Barby, Saxony [Germany] died Aug. 10, 1843, Jena, Thuringia [Germany]       German philosopher.       Fries studied at Leipzig and at Jena, and he became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics… …   Universalium

  • FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH —    a German Kantian philosopher; was professor at Jena; aimed at reconciling the Kantian philosophy with Faith, or the intuitions of the Pure Reason (1773 1843) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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  • Jakob Friedrich Fries — (August 23, 1773 ndash;August 10, 1843) was a German philosopher from Barby.Life and careerFries studied theology at the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at the Universities of Leipzig and Jena. After travelling, in 1806 …   Wikipedia

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  • Friedrich Calker — Johann Friedrich August van Calker (* 4. Juli 1790 in Neudietendorf, Herzogtum Gotha; † 5. Januar 1870 in Bonn) war ein deutscher Philosoph. Calker studierte in Jena. Jakob Friedrich Fries war sein akademischer Lehrer. Nach seiner Habilitation in …   Deutsch Wikipedia